With an 8.500 kilometer coastline, Brazil is the world´s fifth-largest country by area in the world, besides being the country that borders all countries in South America aside from Ecuador and Chile. Due to that, Brazilian ports contribute with more than 90% of the country´s trade in terms of volume. In 2020, Brazilian ports received a total of 7,749 vessels. Of these, 4,233 were foreign vessels and 3,516 were Brazilian vessels.
Brazilian port infrastructure
Brazil has a total of 47 public ports and 129 private ports, as well as numerous smaller ports and terminals. The Port of Santos, located in the state of São Paulo, is the largest port in Brazil and one of the busiest in Latin America. In 2022, it handled a total of 162.4 million tonnes compared to 2021, this figure reveals a growth of 10.5%.
Other major ports in Brazil include the Port of Paranaguá, the Port of Rio de Janeiro, and the Port of Itajaí.
The ports are managed by a combination of federal, state, and municipal authorities, with the federal government playing a major role in regulating and coordinating port activities.
The Secretary of Ports of the President (SEP-PR) of the Ministry of Transport oversees the Brazilian port system. The SEP-PR is in charge of developing policies and carrying out projects, programs and initiatives that assist the growth of seaports. Also, it is the responsibility of the SEP/PR to take part in strategic planning and approve plans for granting, assuring the efficiency and safety of marine freight and passenger transport.
All ports in the country are under the regulatory bodies ANTAQ (National Agency For Waterway Transportation) and MTPAC (the Ministry of Transportation, Ports and Civil Aviation). A port authority oversees each port, whereas activities undertaken in Brazil´s jurisdiction waters are under control of the Brazilian Maritime Authority.
16 of the 34 public maritime ports managed by SEP are under the control of state or local administrations. The Dock Companies, which are joint stock firms with the Federal Government as their largest stakeholder, directly control the other 18 of them. They remain associated with the Secretary of Ports in this way.
Bellow are the dock companies, or companhia docas, that are active in Brazil:
- Docas do Pará Company (CDP)
- Docas Company of Ceará (CDC)
- Company Docas of the Northern Rio Grande (Codern)
- Company of the State of Bahia (Codeba)
- Company Docas of Saint Nicholas (Codesa)
- Docas Company of Rio de Janeiro (CDRJ)
- Company Docas of the State of So Paulo (Codesp)
Main issues with the Brazilian port system
The Brazilian port system faces several challenges, including:
- Infrastructure: Many of Brazil’s ports have outdated infrastructure that limits their capacity and efficiency. This includes insufficient docks, piers, and cargo-handling equipment, as well as inadequate access roads and railways.
- Bureaucracy and Red Tape: The bureaucratic processes involved in port operations can be slow and cumbersome, leading to delays and inefficiencies. This includes customs inspections, port inspections, and the regulatory framework surrounding port operations.
- Congestion: Some of Brazil’s busiest ports, such as Santos and Paranaguá, experience significant congestion, particularly during peak periods. This can result in delays for vessels and cargo, as well as increased costs for shippers.
- Labor Issues: Labor issues, including strikes and disputes, can disrupt port operations and cause delays.
- Environmental Concerns: The operation of ports can have significant environmental impacts, including air and water pollution, habitat destruction, and noise pollution. As a result, there is a growing awareness of the need for sustainable and environmentally responsible port practices.
- Security Concerns: Brazilian ports are vulnerable to theft and smuggling, particularly of high-value goods such as electronics and pharmaceuticals. Port security is therefore an important concern for port operators and authorities.
Efforts are being made to address these challenges, such as through investments in port infrastructure, streamlining bureaucratic processes, and implementing new technologies and practices to improve efficiency and sustainability. However, progress is often slow and incremental, and these issues continue to impact the performance of the Brazilian port system.
The most significant ports in Brazil
Brazil has several significant ports, some of which are among the largest and busiest in Latin America. Here are some of the most significant ports in Brazil:
- Port of Santos: Located in the state of São Paulo, the Port of Santos is Brazil’s largest port and one of the busiest in Latin America. It handles a wide variety of cargo, including containers, bulk liquids, and dry bulk goods such as soybeans and sugar.
- Port of Paranaguá: Located in the state of Paraná, the Port of Paranaguá is Brazil’s second-busiest port, handling a range of cargo including agricultural products, mineral products, and manufactured goods.
- Port of Rio de Janeiro: Located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, the Port of Rio de Janeiro is one of Brazil’s oldest ports and serves as an important gateway for the country’s imports and exports.
- Port of Itajaí: Located in the state of Santa Catarina, the Port of Itajaí is a major container port and an important hub for Brazil’s trade with Asia. It is also very used by Brazilian importers due to the import tax benefit that offer the State of Santa Catarina for companies established there.
- Port of Suape: Located in the state of Pernambuco, the Port of Suape is a rapidly growing port complex that serves as a hub for trade with Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.
- Port of Vitória: Located in the state of Espírito Santo, the Port of Vitória is an important port for the export of iron ore, as well as for other cargo such as coffee, steel, and petroleum.
- Port of Salvador: Located in the state of Bahia, the Port of Salvador is an important gateway for trade with Europe, Africa, and the Americas, handling a range of cargo including containers, bulk liquids, and dry bulk goods.
Types of exported and imported goods
The types of goods that are imported and exported through Brazilian ports vary, but some of the most common include:
- Agricultural products, such as soybeans, corn, and sugar
- Mineral products, such as iron ore, oil, and gas
- Manufactured goods, such as automobiles, machinery, and electronics
- Chemical products, such as fertilizers and plastics
- Food products, such as meat and poultry